In Australia, organisations are moving towards gender-neutral parental leave policies, offering equitable parental leave for all parents.

Gender bias is pervasive at work and in organisations, creating inequalities at every stage of the employment cycle. This insight paper highlights some of the research examining how gender bias operates at work and provides evidence-based suggestions for creating more equitable recruitment and promotion systems.

Gender pay gaps by industry

All industries have a gender pay gap in favour of men

Financial and Insurance Services remains the industry with the highest total remuneration gender pay gap at 29.3%. However, it has decreased year-on-year since 2013-14.

Rental, Hiring and Real Estate Services has replaced Construction as the industry with the second-worst gender pay gap at 26.9%. The gender pay gap in the female-dominated industry of Health Care and Social Assistance barely shifted, declining by just 0.2pp (up 1.2pp from 14.7% in 2015-16 to 15.9% in 2018-19).

2019 Scorecard table 1 - Gender pay gap by industry

Gender pay gaps by industry – average $ amounts

Although all industries have gender pay gaps in favour of men, the actual dollar amounts vary widely between industries.

The large differences between the total remuneration and base salary gender pay gap in the Financial and Insurance Services, Construction and Rental, Hiring and Real Estate Services industries suggest additional payments such as bonuses and commissions are a factor.

2019 Scorecard table 2 - gender pay gap difference between base and total rem

Gender pay gaps by manager category and non-manager occupation

Gender pay gaps favour men across all levels of the workforce

Every manager category and non-manager occupation also shows a gender pay gap favouring men for full-time employees.

Gender pay gaps are influenced by a range of factors including non-salary benefits such as bonuses at senior levels, reliance on awards and collective agreements in some occupations and the concentration of women and men in different industries.

The gender pay gap has increased in two of the four manager categories over the past 12 months with the largest increase occurring in the Other executives / general managers category. There has also been an increase in three of the seven occupational categories. The occupation with largest increase in its gender pay gap this year was Community and personal services with a 2.1pp increase.

2019 Scorecard chart 5 - Manager gender pay gap

This paper looks at the features of ‘female-dominated’ and ‘male-dominated’ organisations, while highlighting the unequal distribution of women and men across industries and occupations.